Undergraduate research can be explored as an independent study or practicum under the guidance of a faculty member, typically for 1 - 3 credits. This link leads you to a listing of currently available projects in the different research groups in the Physics Department, which should give you a sense of what to expect. This is not a comprehensive list, since not all researchers choose to post positions online, so do not feel limited by this - if you are interested in working with a particular faculty member, you should feel free to contact that person directly.
The department also maintains lists of previous Undergrad Research Projects going back to 2008, including Independent Study projects and Honors Theses. Peruse some of those titles to get a feel for the type of research work available. There is also a list of Undergrad Research Opportunities with faculty who are actively searching for undergraduate research assistants which is updated at the start of each semester.
In addition to research positions, the department sometimes uses undergraduates in academic support jobs, as graders, teaching assistants, or lecture support. Check our list of Undergrad Assistantships for open positions.